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Thesis

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Étude de la stœchiométrie de des protéines liées à l’amidon :
vers des programmes novateurs pour la sélection et la production
de nouvelles variétés de pomme de terre

Director: Christophe D’HULST (UGSF Lille)
Co-director: Christian ROLANDO (MSAP Lille)
Thesard: Stanislas HELLE

Starch is currently the main source of carbohydrate in food for human and livestock. It is also used as food additive, glue, bioplastic and biofuel. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of synthesis and degradation are still not well understood. From a fundamental point of view, the objectives are to identify the whole proteins bound to starch granule and to establish their stoichiometry using quantitative proteomics. Afterward, the purpose will be to compare the proteomes from different morphology of granules, and to miniaturize the protocols until the analysis of a single granule. From an applied research point of view, the collaboration of the company Florimond Desprez to this project will allow the application of the developed methods for the selection of new potatoes variety.




Analyse multi-échelle des levures et de leurs hydrolysats, des peptides aux protéines

Director: Christian ROLANDO (MSAP, Lille)
Thesard: Marie YAMMINE

This project aims to the characterization of multiple strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for the identification and the quantification of proteins and peptides generated by enzymatic and autolytic hydrolysis, and also their post-translational modifications, based on “bottom-up” and “top-down” proteomics approaches and using mass spectrometry. The characterization of the lipidome and the mannoproteins of the yeast cell wall will be included in this project, with a particular interest for the development of methodologies, from sample preparations to bioinformatic analysis




Depolymerization of polymers of biological or synthetic origin by FT-ICR 1D and 2D

Director: Christian ROLANDO (MSAP Lille)
Thesard: Ziad MAHMOUD

The study of the depolymerization of polymers of biological or synthetic origin is still today a major analytical challenge, particularly with regard to non-soluble polymers. The characterization of polymers and the study of their degradation pathways have an environmental, economic and scientific importance. The objectives of this thesis are:
– The development of new chemical depolymerization methods specific to each class of polymer using new generations organometallic catalysts,
– The development of analytical methodologies based on high resolution mass spectrometry for the study of complex mixtures resulting from previous depolymerizations.
These new catalysts make it possible to carry out the degradation reactions of natural or synthetic polymers under milder conditions, further preserving the original structure of the monomers. The new methods of analysis, mainly based on the use of high resolution mass spectrometry including FT-ICR MS on one or two dimensions associated with coupling methods of capillary electrophoresis and ion mobility, will allow to obtain more relevant, rich and detailed structural information.




Generation and trapping of transient species via photochemical and/or electrochemical activation under continuous flow

Director: Mael PENHOAT (MSAP Lille)
Co-supervisor : : Laetitia CHAUSSET-BOISSARIE (MSAP Lille)
Thesard: Mélanie ROSEAU

Many of organic processes involve complex reaction pathways and proceed via transient reactive intermediates. Among them, arynes and radicals are classes of reactive intermediates which can provide a prodigious starting point to discover new reactions. Photochemical or electrochemical generation of these transient species can be considered and the use of continuous flow chemistry can circumvent their instability and promote the exploitation of their chemical potential. Moreover, the use of continuous flow chemistry allows the study of in-situ or ex-situ trapping and lifetime species study.

Protéines de soie de Bombyx ou d’araignée, naturelles ou modifiées, polyamides de synthèse, fibre de cellulose comme renfort in situ de composites bioinspirés.

Director: Christian ROLANDO (MSAP Lille)
Thesard: Violaine PIOTROWSKI

Synthetic composites consist of resin and reinforcement generally by short or long industrial fibers. Long fibers offer the best possible reinforcement but require a long and complex manufacturing process by weaving or laminating for the formation of composites. Micro-and short fibers may be directly mixed in the resin and make possible to form a composite in one step by photo-polymerization or thermal polymerization but the mechanical properties of such composites are by far lower than those obtained by long fiber reinforcement.

The subject of the thesis is to study an alternative with the reinforcement by natural long fibers, as carbohydrates (cellulose and cellulose derivated) or as silk proteins (Fibroin H from Bombyx mori, recombinant protein type MaSp1 from Nephila clavipes spider silk).